شعر و زبان در نگاه شلگل
آنچه در ادامه می خوانید بحثی از کتاب « زبان شناسی دکارتی » نوشته ی « پروفسور نوآم چامسکی » است که به بررسی نظریات شلگل، شاعر، منتقد و فیلسوف آلمانی قرن 18 و 19 در خصوص « زبان » می پردازد.
شلگل در آثار خود ضمن آنکه شعر را جزئی لاینفک از زبان روزمره ی آدمی می داند، برای آن جایگاهی منحصر به فرد در میان هنرها قائل می شود، آن چنانکه « شعر را هنر اصیل می نامد » و معتقد است که شالوده و اساس سایر هنرها بر شعر استوار شده است.
"We fit all these words together in ways that allow others to not merely
understand our purpose but glimpse our innermost feelings; in this way we
excite the most diverse passions, affirm or negate moral decisions, and incite
a crowd to collective action. The greatest things as well as the least significant,
the greatest marvel never before heard – indeed the most impossible and
unthinkable things – slide off our tongues with equal ease."
So characteristic of language is this freedom from external control or practical
end, for Schlegel, that he elsewhereproposes that “anything by means of which
the inner manifests itself outwardly is rightly called language.”
From this conception of language, it is only a short step to the association
of the creative aspect of language use with true artistic creativity.Echoing
Rousseau and Herder, Schlegel describes language as “the most marvelous
creation of the poetic faculty of the human being” (Sprache und Poetik, p. 145).
Language is “an ever-becoming, self transforming, unending poem of the entire
human race” (Kunstlehre, p. 226). This poetic quality is characteristic of the
ordinary use of language, which “can never be so completely depoetized that it
should fi nd itself scattered into an abundance of poetical elements, even in the
case of the most calculating and rational use of linguistic signs, all the more so in
the case of everyday life – in impetuous, immediate, often passionate colloquial
language” (ibid, p. 228). There would have been little difficulty, he continues, in
demonstrating to Molière’s M. Jourdain that he spoke poetry as well as prose.
The “poetical” quality of ordinary language derives from its independence of
immediate stimulation (of “the physically perceivable universe”) and its freedom
from practical ends. These characteristics, along with the boundlessness of language
as an instrument of free self-expression, are essentially those emphasized
by Descartes and his followers. But it is interesting to trace, in slightly greater
detail, the argument by which Schlegel goes on to relate what we have called the
creative aspect of language use to true creativity. Art, like language, is unbounded
in its expressive potentiality.But, Schlegel argues, poetry has a unique status
among the arts in this respect; it, in a sense, underlies all the others and stands
as the fundamental and typical art form. We recognize this unique status when
we use the term “poetical” to refer to the quality of true imaginative creation in
any of the arts. The explanation for the central position of poetry lies in its association
with language. Poetry is unique in that its very medium is unbounded
and free; that is, its medium, language, is a system with unbounded innovative
potentialities for the formation and expression of ideas. The production of any
work of art is preceded by a creative mental act for which the means are provided
by language. Thus the creative use of language, which, under certain conditions
of form and organization, constitutes poetry (cf. p. 231), accompanies and underlies
any act of the creative imagination, no matter what the medium in which
it is realized. In this way, poetry achieves its unique status among the arts, and
artistic creativity is related to the creative aspect of language use.