شعر و زبان در نگاه شلگل

بسمه تعالی

 

 

 

آنچه در ادامه می خوانید بحثی از کتاب « زبان شناسی دکارتی » نوشته ی « پروفسور نوآم چامسکی » است که به بررسی نظریات شلگل، شاعر، منتقد و فیلسوف آلمانی قرن 18 و 19 در خصوص « زبان » می پردازد.

شلگل در آثار خود ضمن آنکه شعر را جزئی لاینفک از زبان روزمره ی آدمی می داند، برای آن جایگاهی منحصر به فرد در میان هنرها قائل می شود، آن چنانکه « شعر را هنر اصیل می نامد » و معتقد است که شالوده و اساس سایر هنرها بر شعر استوار شده است.

 

        

    "We fit all these words together in ways that allow others to not merely

understand our purpose but glimpse our innermost feelings; in this way we

excite the most diverse passions, affirm or negate moral decisions, and incite

a crowd to collective action. The greatest things as well as the least significant,

the greatest marvel never before heard indeed the most impossible and

unthinkable things slide off our tongues with equal ease."

 

So characteristic of language is this freedom from external control or practical

end, for Schlegel, that he elsewhereproposes that anything by means of which

the inner manifests itself outwardly is rightly called language.

From this conception of language, it is only a short step to the association

of the creative aspect of language use with true artistic creativity.Echoing

Rousseau and Herder, Schlegel describes language as the most marvelous

creation of the poetic faculty of the human being (Sprache und Poetik, p. 145).

Language is an ever-becoming, self transforming, unending poem of the entire

human race (Kunstlehre, p. 226). This poetic quality is characteristic of the

ordinary use of language, which can never be so completely depoetized that it

should fi nd itself scattered into an abundance of poetical elements, even in the

case of the most calculating and rational use of linguistic signs, all the more so in

the case of everyday life in impetuous, immediate, often passionate colloquial

language (ibid, p. 228). There would have been little difficulty, he continues, in

demonstrating to Molières M. Jourdain that he spoke poetry as well as prose.

The poetical quality of ordinary language derives from its independence of

immediate stimulation (of the physically perceivable universe) and its freedom

from practical ends. These characteristics, along with the boundlessness of language

as an instrument of free self-expression, are essentially those emphasized

by Descartes and his followers. But it is interesting to trace, in slightly greater

detail, the argument by which Schlegel goes on to relate what we have called the

creative aspect of language use to true creativity. Art, like language, is unbounded

in its expressive potentiality.But, Schlegel argues, poetry has a unique status

among the arts in this respect; it, in a sense, underlies all the others and stands

as the fundamental and typical art form. We recognize this unique status when

we use the term poetical to refer to the quality of true imaginative creation in

any of the arts. The explanation for the central position of poetry lies in its association

with language. Poetry is unique in that its very medium is unbounded

and free; that is, its medium, language, is a system with unbounded innovative

potentialities for the formation and expression of ideas. The production of any

work of art is preceded by a creative mental act for which the means are provided

by language. Thus the creative use of language, which, under certain conditions

of form and organization, constitutes poetry (cf. p. 231), accompanies and underlies

any act of the creative imagination, no matter what the medium in which

it is realized. In this way, poetry achieves its unique status among the arts, and

artistic creativity is related to the creative aspect of language use.

 

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